Migraine is one of the most burdensome diseases plaguing humanity. Although, apart from complicated complicated characters, it does not carry a mortal threat, migraine can turn life into a nightmare. Let's see what migraine symptoms and causes are, what medications are used for migraine, as well as what is ocular migraine, migraine with aura and other types of migraine.
Migraine is a disease that is based on a strong, seizure-like and throbbing headache, accompanied by other symptoms. Migraine is classified as a disease unit in the ICD-10 (international classification of diseases) and ihd (International Classification of headaches) and is considered by the World Health Organization as one of the ailments that most significantly reduce the quality of life.
At the same time, although migraine affects hundreds of millions of people around the world, it is widely misunderstood, neglected, misunderstood or even not accepted. People who have not experienced it, sometimes leniently treat loved ones or co-workers who are suppressed by a migraine attack are unable to function normally. The point of view often changes only after experiencing a migraine on your own skin.
Migraine is a disease that has several forms. The current classifications distinguish two main varieties of migraine.
Variants of migraine with aura are, among others, basal migraine and equivalent migraine. Retinal migraine and ocular migraine also function as separate units in the medical nomenclature. Migraine and complicated migraine are also separate diseases. In the case of children, we are talking about the so-called Children's migraine syndromes, i.e. the so-called migraine equivalents.
Two other concepts deserve special attention. The commonly used term "ocular migraine" is a colloquial term used to refer to the two types of migraine mentioned above – aura and retinal. In contrast, cervical migraine is not actually a migraine disease-it is a so-called cervical headache, which is based on spinal problems.
Migraine symptoms are very characteristic, at least in adults. Migraine headaches are severe, throbbing, seizure-like and often localized on one side of the skull, around the eye socket or temporal lobe, less often in the occiput. It increases with physical activity such as running, climbing stairs and even getting out of bed. Migraines last from 4 to 72 hours; these attacks can occur up to 2 to 4 times a month.
Additional symptoms of migraine in its simple form are nausea and vomiting, as well as severe photophobia and sensitivity to sound. In many cases, patients also experience other experiences, including those that, especially at the first time, can cause fear, raising suspicions of the most serious diseases. We are talking, of course, about the symptoms of migraine aura.
In about 20 percent of cases, attacks of pain are preceded by an attack of the so-called migraine aura. These are neurological disorders that are responsible for abnormal visual experiences. The migraine aura can manifest itself through the reflections and darknesses that appear before the eyes. A particularly common phenomenon is the so-called fortification spectrum, i.e. a prediction with a zigzag, geometric shape, dark filling and bright, flickering edges.
Migraine with aura is also sensory disturbances, possible tingling in the extremities and corners of the mouth, fainting and even fainting. Fortunately, the symptoms of migraine with aura, or so-called ocular migraine, are reversible and short-lived (an attack of migraine aura lasts from 5 to 60 minutes).
Migraine causes has to this day not fixed in an indisputable way. The complex pathogenesis of migraine is probably the result of the combined influence of neurobiological internal mechanisms, environmental and genetic factors.
A popular theory that attempts to explain the causes of migraines is that the attacks of pain are caused by a strong contraction and then expansion of the arterial vessels in the brain due to disturbances in the process of secretion of serotonin. Another hypothesis sees the causes of migraine in the disruption of the so-called ion channels, i.e. proteins that allow the transport of ions across the cell membranes. The latest theory is based on the belief that migraine is the result of the body's response to the so-called oxidative stress.
Migraine certainly has a genetic basis-about 60 percent of sufferers have other cases of migraine in their families. The role of factors that stimulate the internal mechanisms responsible for migraine is also extremely important.
In the case of migraine, treatment consists of a symptomatic effect aimed at reducing headache, as well as prophylactic reduction in the frequency of subsequent migraine attacks. However, until now, no method has been invented to deal with the disease once and for all.
The basis is, when it comes to migraine, pharmacological treatment based on the means of several groups. The most powerful of these, tryptans, are prescription drugs. Their action consists, among other things, in stimulating serotonin receptors.
Also on prescription you can buy so-called ergot alkaloid derivatives (m.in. ergotamine and dihydroergotamine), which work by causing the brain vessels to contract.
Cafergot contains ergotamine tartrate and caffeine.Ergotamine aborts attacks of migraine with or without aura by its specific vasotonic action on distended extracranial arteries. Caffeine accelerates and increases the enteral absorption of egotamine.
And finally, medicines available without a prescription. The most effective of these is acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) at a dose of 1000 mg, which can possibly be replaced by other agents from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac). The last option is a non – opioid analgesic-paracetamol.
When it comes to preventive treatment of migraine, the use of everyday means used to combat hypertension, epilepsy and depression. Use only as directed by your doctor.
In addition to pharmacology, there are also numerous home remedies for migraine. The most important and most effective is considered to be ... the holy peace. Persons anticipating the onset of a migraine attack are advised to lie in a darkened room and, if possible, wait for the attack in a supine position.
Other home remedies for migraines include cold or warm head wraps, bathing, drinking soothing herbs, relaxing head and neck massages, relaxation techniques, yoga, walking outdoors, a diet free of chocolate, coffee, cheese and liver, and staying away from beer, wine and cigarettes. To this can be added unconventional methods of treating migraine-injections of Botox and acupuncture and psychotherapy.
A special case is migraine in pregnancy. It occurs in up to 15 percent of pregnant women, usually in the first trimester. The onset of pregnancy is a time of special hormonal changes that can stimulate migraine attacks and other types of headaches. Migraine in pregnancy is very often the first migraine experience in the life of many women. Its symptoms are not usually extremely severe, but the problem is that there is little possibility of pharmacological treatment. During pregnancy, the only drug that is generally considered acceptable (but at a dose of no more than 300-500 mg once every 6 hours) is paracetamol.
Although migraine most often develops after 25-30 years of age, the disease also attacks the youngest. Migraine in children is characterized by symptoms. The so-called Children's periodic syndromes, also called migraine equivalents, consist of the following symptoms:
Worse, migraine in children, especially the youngest, under 4 years of age, can manifest itself through a few days of semi-paralysis.
It should also be remembered that migraine in children is not always manifested by a headache, which makes it even more difficult to recognize.